Guan kiln is one of the five biggest kilns in Song Dynasty in China. Its production technology is inherited from secret color porcelain of Tang Dynasty and Chai kiln of Five Dynasties. It adds a very lustrous jade sense on the basis of Qianfeng green color. As an important ritual ware of the ruling class and an object for the enjoyment of the upper class, it is green and jade, elegant in color and simple in shape, which fully embodies the wisdom of the ancestors of the Song Dynasty, and has become an important milestone in the development history of China's porcelain. Song Dynasty is an important period in Chinese history, with rapid economic development, extremely rich life and prosperous industry. The main income of the court gradually changed from agriculture to industry and commerce, and the agricultural society gradually moved forward to the industrial society. As depicted in the riverside map of Qingming Dynasty, the economy is prosperous and the people live and work in peace and contentment. This is the economic basis and social background of the production of the official kiln porcelain in Song Dynasty.
In the period of Daguan and Zhenghe of the Northern Song Dynasty, a kiln was set up near Bianjing, which was directly operated by the government and specialized in the production of porcelain for the court, that is, the official kiln of the Northern Song Dynasty. Gu Wenjian of the Southern Song dynasty recorded that "the imperial kiln was built by the imperial master in Xuanhe (Xuanhe, Zhenghe, i.e. 1111-1125 A.D.), which was also named" official kiln ". Ye Cong of the Southern Song Dynasty also recorded in his yuanzhai biheng:" the imperial kiln was built by the imperial master and the imperial master, which was named "official kiln". The Ming Dynasty "things cyan bead", "stay green" follow this theory. Bianjing (Kaifeng, Henan Province) was the capital at that time. Because the Bianjing site in Song Dynasty has sunk into the ground, so far, no official kiln site in Northern Song Dynasty has been excavated. There is a lack of archaeological data and sufficient literature support for the site of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty. So far, there are still different opinions about where the site of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty is located. Generally, there are three opinions: one is that the official kiln in the northern Song Dynasty is Ru kiln; the other is that it denies the existence of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty; the third is that the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty is Bianjing kiln, which successively exists with the official kiln in the Southern Song Dynasty. There are more people supporting the third view. In the Southern Song Dynasty, "xiuneisi kiln" and "jiaotanxia kiln" were successively set up. Up to now, there are still some historical sites left at the foot of Fenghuang Mountain in Hangzhou, such as LAOHUDONG kiln in the Southern Song Dynasty, tanxia kiln in the suburb of the Southern Song Dynasty, which are all state-level cultural relics protection units.
There are many kinds of official kilns in Song Dynasty, which are divided into ritual ware, furnishing ware and daily use ware according to their uses. Ritual ware and furnishing ware are the main parts, because in Song Dynasty, ceremonious sacrificial activities were held every year, such as sacrificing to heaven, land and ancestors, which requires a lot of ritual ware. At that time, the bronze ware was gradually replaced by porcelain, so it was obvious from the modeling that there were many ancient and simple imitation bronze ware types in the porcelain of song official kiln. The tyre making in Guanyao is generally from the nearest place, and the tyre color is mostly gray, dark gray and dark brown, which is caused by the incorporation of purple gold soil with high iron content into the tyre soil. The thin glaze of the mouth and the exposed part of the ring foot show dark brown, just like the ancient saying "Purple mouth and iron foot". There are many kinds of glaze colors, such as sky blue, pink green, grey green, beige, moon white and green. In the official kilns of the Northern Song Dynasty, there are more pink green and moon white. According to the evaluation of the ancients, "pink and blue are the top, light white (moon white) is the second, and putty (gray and blue) is also under the color.". There are different kinds of glaze, such as ox hair grain, crab claw grain, ice crack, fish scale grain and fish roe grain. The ancients said: "take the ice eel blood as the top, followed by the black pattern of the plum blossom, and also under the fine grain.". In a word, the official kiln porcelain of Song Dynasty must conform to the aesthetic view of the royal family. It does not have exquisite carving to attract people, nor does it rely on colorful painting to attract people. It can be regarded as the representative of the aesthetic of Song Dynasty, only with the simple and solemn shape of utensils, the glaze color of glittering and lustrous jade, the pattern of scales like waves, and the beauty of purple mouth and iron feet.
The Goblet of the official kiln is open to the sky, which means "inheriting the heavenly dew" or "inheriting the heavenly way". Long neck, square belly, high circle feet. The carcass is thick, large, simple, elegant and charming. The carcass is fine and dense. The glaze is thick and moist as jade. The cracks are clear and appear in layers. It looks like solid ice and cracks. It has a strong sense of three-dimensional. It feels smooth and smooth by hand. Its elegant plain clothes are eye-catching and unique in artistic charm. Due to the non-commercial production of Guanyao porcelain, there are few products. Among them, the elite were selected into the palace, and the second was buried. They were not allowed to enter the folk. The emperors of all dynasties regarded the porcelain of the official kiln as a treasure. It was handed down from generation to generation, and they did not bury it as a Ming ware, which showed the degree of its preciousness. Therefore, such a well preserved porcelain of the official kiln as a flower Goblet of the official kiln is even more rare and has a very high collection value.
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