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古玩城2021精品推荐第二期:清代名画家石涛作品

石涛(1642一约1707),清代画家、中国画一代宗师。法名原济,一作元济。本姓朱,名若极,字石涛,又号苦瓜和尚、大涤子、清湘陈人等。广西全州人,晚年定居扬州。明靖江王后裔,幼年遭变后出家为僧,半世云游,以卖画为业。与八大山人、弘仁、髡残合称“清初四僧”。

Shi Tao (1642-1707) was a painter of Qing Dynasty and a great master of Chinese painting. The name of Yuanji is Yuanji. His real name is Zhu ruoji, and his name is Shi Tao. He is also called balsam pear monk, dadizi, and Chen people of Hunan Province. Quanzhou, Guangxi, settled in Yangzhou in his later years. A descendant of King Jingjiang of Ming Dynasty, he became a monk when he was a child. He traveled for half of his life and sold paintings. Together with Badashan people, Hongren and kuncan, they are called "four monks in the early Qing Dynasty".

他既有国破家亡之痛,又两次跪迎康熙皇帝,并与清王朝上层人物多有往来,内心充满矛盾。(石涛号称出生于帝王胄裔,明亡之时他不过是三岁小孩,他的出家更多的只是一种政治姿态,这与渐江的"受性偏孤"是不同的,石涛的性格中充满了"动"的因素,因而他身处佛门却心向红尘。康熙南巡时,石涛曾两次接驾,并山呼万岁,并且主动进京交结达官显贵,企图出人头地,但权贵们仅把他当作一名会画画的和尚而已,并未与之计较,故而攻败垂成。因此他是在清高自许与不甘岑寂之间矛盾地渡过了一生,好在他聪明绝顶,巧妙地把这种矛盾发泄到他的画作之中,所以他的作品纵横排闼、闪转腾挪,充满了动感与张力,这也正是他异于常人的高明之处。)石涛工诗文,善书画。其画擅山水,兼工兰竹。其山水不局限于师承某家某派,而广泛师法历代画家之长,将传统的笔墨技法加以变化,又注重师法造化,从大自然汲取创作源泉,并完善表现技法。作品笔法流畅凝重,松柔秀拙,尤长于点苔,密密麻麻,劈头盖面,丰富多采;用墨浓淡干湿,或笔简墨淡,或浓重滋润,酣畅淋漓,极尽变化;构图新奇,或全景式场面宏阔,或局部特写,景物突出,变幻无穷。画风新颖奇异、苍劲恣肆、纵横排奡、生意盎然。其花鸟、兰竹,亦不拘成法,自抒胸臆,笔墨爽利峻迈,淋漓清润,极富个性。石涛的绘画,在当时即名重于世,由于他饱览名山大川,“搜尽奇峰打草稿”,形成自己苍郁恣肆的独特风格。石涛善用墨法,枯湿浓淡兼施并用,尤其喜欢用湿笔,通过水墨的渗化和笔墨的融和,表现出山川的氤氲气象和深厚之态。有时用墨很浓重,墨气淋漓,空间感强。在技巧上他运笔灵活。或细笔勾勒,很少皴擦;或粗线勾斫,皴点并用。有时运笔酣畅流利,有时又多方拙之笔,方圆结合,秀拙相生。

He not only suffered from the loss of his country and family, but also knelt down twice to welcome Emperor Kangxi. He had many contacts with the upper class of the Qing Dynasty, and his heart was full of contradictions( Shi Tao is said to be born in the royal family. When Ming Dynasty died, he was only a three-year-old child. His becoming a monk was more just a political gesture, which is different from Jian Jiang's "accepting nature and being lonely". Shi Tao's character is full of "dynamic" factors, so he was in Buddhism, but he wanted to go to the world. During Kangxi's tour to the south, Shi Tao took over twice and called long live to the mountain. He took the initiative to go to Beijing to make friends with high-ranking officials and dignitaries in an attempt to get ahead. However, the dignitaries only regarded him as a monk who could draw pictures. They did not care about him, so they defeated him. As a result, he spent his life in contradiction between lofty self-esteem and unwilling to be quiet. Fortunately, he was extremely clever and skillfully expressed this contradiction in his paintings. Therefore, his works are full of dynamic and tension, which is what makes him different from ordinary people.) Shi Tao is good at poetry and painting. He is good at landscape painting and also works with orchid and bamboo. His landscape is not limited to learning from a certain school, but widely imitates the advantages of previous painters, changes the traditional brush and ink techniques, pays attention to learning from nature, absorbs the source of creation from nature, and improves the performance techniques. The writing style of the work is fluent and dignified, soft and elegant, especially good at the point of moss, dense and colorful; Dry and wet with thick and thin ink, or simple ink, or thick and moist, full of changes; The composition is novel, or the panoramic scene is broad, or the local close-up, the scenery is prominent and changeable. The painting style is novel and strange, vigorous and unrestrained, vertical and horizontal, and full of business. Its flowers and birds, orchids and bamboos, also informal, self-expression of the mind, refreshing ink Junmai, dripping Qingrun, very rich personality. At that time, Shi Tao's paintings were more famous than the world. Because he had a good view of the famous mountains and rivers and "searched all the strange peaks to draft", he formed his own unique style. Shi Tao is good at using ink. He combines dry, wet, thick and light. He especially likes to use wet pen. Through the infiltration of ink and the fusion of ink and brush, he shows the dense atmosphere and deep state of mountains and rivers. Sometimes the ink is very thick, the ink is dripping, and the sense of space is strong. He is skillful in writing. Or fine brush outline, rarely Cun rub; Or thick line hook, Cun point and use. Sometimes the pen is smooth and fluent, and sometimes the pen is clumsy in many ways.

石涛作画构图新奇。无论是黄山云烟,江南水墨,还是悬崖峭壁,枯树寒鸦,或平远、深远、高远之景,都力求布局新奇,意境翻新。他尤其善用“截取法”以特写之景传达深邃之境。石涛还讲求气势。他笔情恣肆,淋漓洒脱,不拘小处瑕疵,作品具有一种豪放郁勃的气势,以奔放之势见胜。对清代以至现当代的中国绘画发展产生了极为深远的影响。有《搜尽奇峰打草稿图》、《淮扬洁秋图》、《惠泉夜泛图》、《山水清音图》、《细雨虬松图》、《梅竹图》、《墨荷图》、《竹菊石图》等传世。著《苦瓜和尚画语录》,阐述了他对山水画的认识,提出一画说,主张“借古以开今”,“我用我法”,和“搜尽奇峰打草稿”等,在中国画史上具有十分重要的意义。

Shi Tao's composition is novel. Whether it's the clouds and smoke of Huangshan Mountain, the ink painting in the south of the Yangtze River, the cliffs, the dead trees and jackdaws, or the scenes of Pingyuan, far-reaching and high, all strive for novel layout and new artistic conception. He is especially good at using the "interception method" to convey the profound scene with close-up. Shi Tao also stresses momentum. His brushwork is unrestrained, free and easy, not limited to small flaws. His works have a bold and unrestrained momentum, and win by the unrestrained momentum. It has a profound influence on the development of Chinese painting in the Qing Dynasty and even in modern times. Some of them are handed down from generation to generation, such as the draft painting of searching for all the wonderful peaks, the painting of Huaiyang in autumn, the painting of Huiquan in the night, the painting of clear sound of mountains and rivers, the painting of drizzle in autumn, the painting of plum and bamboo, the painting of Mohe and the painting of bamboo, chrysanthemum and stone. The book "quotations of balsam pear monk painting" expounds his understanding of landscape painting, puts forward a painting theory, and advocates "borrowing the ancient to open the present", "I use my method", and "searching all the strange peaks to draft", which is of great significance in the history of Chinese painting.

 

 

石涛的山水画独具风格,景色构图大胆新颖,笔墨运用多变,是清代早期最富有创造性的画家。朱耷以画花鸟画出名,继承陈淳、徐渭的传统,发展了泼墨写意画法。作品往往借物抒情,以象征、寓意和夸张的手法,塑造奇特的形象,抒发厌恶世俗生活和国亡家破的痛苦内心。他的艺术成就,对后来的扬州八怪和近现代大写意花鸟画影响很大。石的山水学习黄公望、王蒙风格自有变化,以真实景色为对象,描绘山水,具有雄伟壮阔,苍茫浑厚的气势。

Shi Tao is the most creative painter in the early Qing Dynasty with his unique style of landscape painting, bold and novel landscape composition and changeable use of brush and ink. Zhu Da is famous for his paintings of flowers and birds. He inherited the traditions of Chen Chun and Xu Wei and developed his freehand brushwork. Works often borrow things to express their feelings, use symbolism, allegory and exaggeration to create strange images and express the pain of disgusting secular life and the loss of the country. His artistic achievements had a great influence on the later Yangzhou Eight monsters and modern freehand flower and bird paintings. Shi's landscape style has its own changes from Huang Gongwang's and Wang Meng's. He takes the real scenery as the object to describe the landscape, which is magnificent and vast.

 

 

 

 

 

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