Collection name: inkstone of Qing Dynasty
[collection quantity]: one piece
【藏品概况】：砚亦称为研，中国传统手工艺品之一，砚与笔、 墨、 纸合称中国传统的 文房四宝，是中国书法的必备用具。汉代 刘熙写的《释名》中说明：“砚者研也，可研墨使和濡也”。它是由原始社会的研磨器演变而来。初期的砚，形态原始，是用一块小研石在一面磨平的石器上压墨丸研磨成墨汁。至汉时，砚上出现了雕刻，有石盖，下带足。 魏晋至隋出现了圆形瓷砚，由三足而多足。箕形砚是唐代常见的砚式，形同 簸箕，砚底一端落地，一端以足支撑。唐、宋时，砚台的造型更加多样化。
[introduction to collection]: inkstone, also known as Yan, is one of the traditional Chinese handicrafts. Together with pen, ink and paper, inkstone is known as the four treasures of Chinese traditional study, and is an essential tool for Chinese calligraphy. Liu Xi of the Han Dynasty explained in his Shiming that "inkstones can be studied, and Mo envoys and Ru can be studied.". It evolved from the grinders of primitive society. The inkstone in the early stage was primitive in shape. It was made of a small grindstone and ground into ink by pressing an ink ball on a stone tool which was ground flat on one side. In the Han Dynasty, there were sculptures on the inkstones, with stone covers and feet under them. From the Wei, Jin and Sui dynasties, there appeared round porcelain inkstones with three feet and many feet. Jixing inkstone is a common type of inkstone in Tang Dynasty. It is similar to a dustpan. One end of the inkstone falls to the ground and the other end is supported by feet. In Tang and Song Dynasties, the shapes of inkstones were more diversified.
砚材的运用也极为广泛，其中以广东 肇庆的端砚、 安徽歙县的歙砚、甘肃卓尼的洮河砚、山西绛县的澄泥砚最为突出，称“ 四大名砚”。砚台历经秦汉、魏晋，至唐代起，各地相继发现适合制砚的石料，开始以石为主的砚台制作。其中采用广东端州的 端石、安徽歙州的 歙石及甘肃临洮的 洮河石制作的砚台，被分别称作端砚、歙砚、洮河砚。史书将端、歙、临洮砚称作三大名砚。清末，又将山西的澄泥砚与端、歙、临洮，并列为中国四大名砚。也有人主张，以天然砚石雕制的鲁砚中的 徐公石砚代替澄泥砚，合称 四大名砚。
Among them, Duan inkstone in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, She inkstone in Shexian, Anhui, Taohe inkstone in Zhuoni, Gansu, and Chengni inkstone in Jiangxian, Shanxi are the most prominent. Inkstones went through the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Wei and Jin Dynasties, and from the Tang Dynasty, stone materials suitable for making inkstones were found one after another, and inkstones were mainly made of stone. The inkstones made of Duanshi from Duanzhou in Guangdong, sheshi from Shezhou in Anhui and Taohe stone from Lintao in Gansu are called Duanshi, sheshi and Taohe inkstones respectively. Duan, she and Lintao inkstones are called three famous inkstones in history books. In the late Qing Dynasty, Chengni inkstone, Duan inkstone, Sheyan inkstone and Lintao inkstone in Shanxi Province were listed as the four famous inkstones in China. It is also advocated that Xugong inkstone, one of the Lu inkstones carved with natural inkstones, should replace Chengni inkstone, which is collectively known as the four famous inkstones.
砚台与笔、墨、纸是中国传统的 文房四宝，是中国书法的必备用具。砚台不仅是 文房用具，由于其性质坚固，传百世而不朽，又被历代文人作为珍玩藏品之选。砚台的材料丰富多样，除端石、歙石、洮河石、澄泥石、徐公砚、易水砚、 松花石红丝石、 砣矶石、 菊花石外，还有 玉砚、玉杂石砚、瓦砚、漆沙砚、 铁砚、 瓷砚等，共几十种。砚台是伴随着笔和墨的发展而发展起来的。最早出现的砚台是石砚。汉代由于发明了人工制墨，墨可以直接在砚上研磨，于是砚台开始发展起来，出现了 铜砚、 陶砚、银砚、 徐公砚、木胎漆砂砚等等，六朝至隋朝最突出的就是瓷砚的出现。唐代是砚台的重要发展时期，出现了端石和歙石两大砚材，明清时期制砚的材质更加丰富，出现了瓦砚、铁砚、锡砚、玉砚、象牙砚、竹砚等等。木砚研究始于何时，没有定论，但以清代居多。木材因其本性所限定，实际并不适宜做砚台，但文人的浪漫将这种大胆的尝试，与工匠的巧思融合在一起，为大家留下了许多颇为精美的文房陈设品。
originInkstone, pen, ink and paper are the four treasures of Chinese traditional study and the necessary tools for Chinese calligraphy. Inkstone is not only a tool for study, because of its strong nature, it has been handed down for centuries and is immortal. It has also been selected as a collection of treasures by scholars of all ages. The materials of inkstones are rich and diverse. In addition to Duanshi, sheshi, Taohe stone, Chengni stone, Xugong inkstone, Yishui inkstone, Songhua stone, Hongsi stone, Duji stone and Juhua stone, there are also dozens of kinds of jade inkstones, jade miscellaneous stone inkstones, tile inkstones, Qisha inkstones, iron inkstones and porcelain inkstones. Inkstone is developed with the development of pen and ink. The earliest inkstone is stone inkstone. In Han Dynasty, due to the invention of artificial ink, ink can be directly ground on the inkstone, so inkstone began to develop, with the emergence of copper inkstone, pottery inkstone, silver inkstone, Xugong inkstone, wooden lacquer sand inkstone and so on. From the Six Dynasties to the Sui Dynasty, the most prominent is the emergence of porcelain inkstone. The Tang Dynasty is an important period for the development of inkstones, with the emergence of Duanshi and sheshi. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the materials of inkstones were more abundant, including tile inkstones, iron inkstones, tin inkstones, jade inkstones, ivory inkstones, bamboo inkstones and so on. There is no definite conclusion about when the study of wooden inkstone began, but it is mostly in the Qing Dynasty. Limited by its nature, wood is not suitable for inkstone, but the romance of literati combined this bold attempt with craftsman's ingenious thinking, leaving us a lot of exquisite stationery furnishings.
除石砚以外，我国还生产过一些用其他原料制作的墨砚。汉代有瓦砚，陶砚，玉砚，铁砚和 漆砚，晋代有木砚，瓷砚，和铜砚，唐代有泥砚，宋代有 水晶砚，石泥砚，砖砚和天然砚，明代有化石砚，清代有纸砚，而今有橡皮砚。经过很长时间的历史，砚台已早已不再是单纯的文具，而成为了集雕刻，绘画于一身的精美工艺品，成为文人墨客收藏的对象。如果要探究起中国砚台的起源，可能要追溯到原始社会人类打造工具的研磨器了，作为与笔、墨、纸并称“文房四宝”，中国历代的学问人对砚台的珍爱，可以说是到了无以复加的地步了。刻砚、赏砚、藏砚，作为一种时尚的风气，砚台随着社会历史的演变，浓缩了中国各个朝代学问、经济乃至审美意识的各种信息。对现代人来说， 古砚台完成了由实用品到艺术品的转化，因而也造就了它独特的收藏理财的价值。
In addition to inkstone, China has also produced some inkstone made of other raw materials. There are tile inkstone, pottery inkstone, jade inkstone, iron inkstone and lacquer inkstone in Han Dynasty, wood inkstone, porcelain inkstone and copper inkstone in Jin Dynasty, clay inkstone in Tang Dynasty, crystal inkstone, stone clay inkstone, brick inkstone and natural inkstone in Song Dynasty, fossil inkstone in Ming Dynasty, paper inkstone in Qing Dynasty and rubber inkstone now. After a long history, inkstone is no longer a simple stationery, but a set of sculpture, painting in a beautiful handicraft, become the object of collection of literati. If we want to explore the origin of Chinese inkstones, we may have to trace back to the grinders of tools made by human beings in primitive society. As the "four treasures of the study" together with pen, ink and paper, Chinese cultural people's treasure of inkstones in past dynasties can be said to be beyond comparison. Inkstone carving, appreciation and collection, as a fashion, along with the evolution of social history, has condensed various information of culture, economy and aesthetic consciousness of various dynasties in China. For modern people, the ancient inkstone has completed the transformation from a practical product to a work of art, thus creating its unique collection and financial value.